With the development of parking equipment industry in recent years, intelligent parking equipment with its characteristics of high volume ratio, convenient use, high-speed safety, intelligent full-automatic, etc., the proportion of parking equipment industry is increasing day by day. There are many types of intelligent parking equipment, different types have different characteristics. This paper analyzes the characteristics of several mainstream intelligent parking equipment, and puts forward its suitable application occasions.
Equipment selection principle and basic technical requirementsPrinciple of equipment selection
1. The principle of capacity maximization is to determine the type of parking equipment on the basis of reasonable garage location, convenient access and smooth operation of the garage, so as to maximize the capacity of the garage.
2. In the principle of environmental coordination, on the basis of fully considering the safety and operation convenience of the garage, the coordination with the surrounding environment and traffic flow shall also be fully considered.
3. The use reliability principle ensures the safe and reliable operation of the garage on the premise of meeting the use function.Basic technical requirements of equipment
1. The entrance and exit dimensions, parking space dimensions, personnel and equipment safety of parking equipment shall comply with the national standard general safety requirements for mechanical parking equipment.
2. If conditions permit, the charging demand of new energy vehicles shall be fully considered. During the design and planning, the proportion of not less than 10% (including plane parking space) shall be allocated, and the combination of fast and slow charging shall be considered.
3. The operation of parking equipment shall be combined with intelligent system, and the operation of access vehicle shall be intuitive and simple. At the same time, fully considering the unattended situation, the owner is allowed to operate by himself.
4. For the underground parking equipment, the moisture-proof and rust proof treatment of steel structure, access vehicle mechanism and other equipment shall be considered. The electrical components shall be able to work normally when the environmental humidity is less than 95%.Types of intelligent parking equipment
The mainstream intelligent parking equipment mainly includes plane moving type, vertical lifting type and roadway stacking type.
Vertical lifting equipment is commonly known as tower silo (see Figure 1). According to its shape, it can be roughly divided into standard square tower silo, large car tower silo and circular tower silo.1111111111111111111fdfdfd
Plane mobile device is one of the most difficult, intelligent and widely used parking equipment. It originated in Japan and Europe at first. After more than ten years of development in China, it has also derived many different types. Its core technology is the plane carrier. Therefore, the plane mobile garage is classified according to the form of the carrier. According to the time sequence of its emergence, it can be generally divided into carriage plate, comb type, telescopic comb type, mechanical arm clamping type and ultra-thin mechanical arm clamping type. In the above five types, according to the different ways of driving and running, other subdivision types can be derived.
Roadway stacking is similar to plane movement, and it is basically divided by the form of transporter.
Characteristics of each typeVertical lifting parking equipment
Vertical lifting equipment has a high utilization rate of land area, which is generally set on the ground. According to the different demand of parking space, different layers are configured. At present, the highest vertical lifting equipment in China is 50 layers, which can reach 100m high, and it is located in Tianzhu community of Xi'an. It can also be developed underground. The advantage of all underground vertical lifting equipment is that it has little impact on the surrounding lighting and landscape, but the cost of civil engineering is large, so it is not widely used. At present, the deepest all underground equipment in China is located in Hangzhou density Bridge parking lot, with a total depth of about 33m.
1. The standard square tower depot is a kind of equipment widely used in the tower depot, which has a high land utilization rate. Generally, it is a depot with 50 parking spaces. The average floor area of each parking space is only 1m2. The efficiency of access vehicles is high, stable and reliable, so it is popular in the commercial center, office building and other areas with tight land.
2. The large car tower depot is based on the standard square tower depot. The car is elongated, and the number of parking spaces on each floor varies from 4 to 14. The main application is to increase the area of the plane to achieve parking under the condition that there are some restrictions on the height, but the number of cars can not be reduced. The efficiency of vehicle access is basically the same as that of the standard square tower.
3. The biggest feature of circular tower warehouse is its novel appearance, but its floor area is also the largest. The average floor area of each parking space is more than 2 times of the standard square tower warehouse. The number of parking spaces on each floor can be 8-12 according to the size of the circle.
Another feature of the round tower is that 2-8 entrances and exits can be set around the tower according to the needs, and then a circle of circular lanes around the tower, together with intelligent guidance system, can effectively alleviate the congestion of centralized and continuous access vehicles.
Therefore, in some occasions with abundant land area, high requirements for shape and large amount of vehicles, circular tower warehouse is a relatively suitable equipment. See Figure 2.Plane mobile parking equipment
Plane mobile equipment is generally set in the underground, and it can also be set on the ground. Plane layout is a layout with high efficiency and wide application. See Figure 3.
According to the demand of the number of cars, 2-10 floors are generally set, and the number of elevators at the entrance and exit can also be increased or decreased according to the number of cars. Generally, the number of cars corresponding to each elevator is 50-80, and each floor has a carrier.
The parking spaces are also arranged longitudinally, and the elevators are also located in the middle laneway. The application scope of these layouts is relatively small, and they are only suitable for some special terrain.
The classification of plane movement is mainly based on the form of the carrier, and which carrier to measure or select is mainly considered from the following aspects.
1. The suitable parking range is not only the length and width of the vehicle, but also the vehicle quality, wheelbase and other indicators.
2. Carrier speed / access vehicle efficiency, mainly to assess the length of a round-trip time of storage or pick-up.
3. Space utilization rate, too high lifting height will waste height space.
4. Failure rate and maintainability.
5. Safety means whether the vehicle can be stopped without damage, and whether the tire or other parts of the vehicle will be damaged.Carriage plate plane mobile equipment
It is the earliest type of plane movement. Because the vehicle is parked on the pallet and the carrier carries the pallet, its biggest advantage is stable and reliable, no harm to the vehicle. In addition, there are no too many restrictions on the parking vehicles, and the super heavy vehicles can cope with it.
But at the same time, the disadvantages are also obvious, because every time the vehicle is accessed, there is a movement of empty car plate, and the efficiency of vehicle access is relatively low. In consideration of the time of clearing the warehouse, under the condition that the number of parking spaces in a single warehouse does not exceed 50, and the requirements for parking vehicles are relatively high, the carriage plate type plane movement is more suitable.Comb type plane mobile equipment
It is a kind of equipment developed under the condition of avoiding the carriage plate returning the empty carriage plate. Its characteristics are that it avoids the action of returning the empty carriage plate and has high access efficiency, but it also occupies a large space. The net height of each floor is generally 1950mm. So the capacity of its single garage can reach about 80-100 parking spaces.
The retractable comb is an upgraded product derived from the comb. Its biggest feature is to reduce the net height of each layer to about 1780mm, but its internal structure is relatively complex, and the assembly requirements are relatively high. At present, such domestic equipment is dependent on imports.
The defect of comb type equipment is that, because the carrier is toothed and every parking space is toothed, the tire damage is inevitable for long-term parked vehicles.Mechanical arm clamping plane movement
It is a new equipment developed on the basis of solving the disadvantage of comb. In terms of the efficiency of the carrier, it is basically the same as the comb, but its parking space is a plane, so it can play a better role in protecting the car. But its disadvantage is that the required floor height is high. Generally, for this type of equipment, the net height of each floor is about 1800mm. Therefore, for the underground multi-layer plane mobile equipment, the cost of civil engineering will be larger.
The ultra-thin mechanical arm clamping type is based on the previous, making the carrier thinner, basically controlled within 100 mm, so the height of each floor of parking space can be controlled below 1700. Technically, it is the most advanced plane mobile device. Its parameters can meet the requirements of most vehicles in the market, and the operation is reliable, stable and efficient. It is suitable for large-scale intelligent parking equipment.Roadway stacking parking equipment
For the plane mobile equipment with a carrier on each floor, the cost will be relatively high. In this case, the stacker can effectively reduce the cost. But at the same time, the efficiency is low.
In addition to the above major types of equipment, AGV parking robots have been gradually applied in the parking industry in recent years. The parking equipment uses AGV robots (automatic guided transport vehicles) to drive along the specified guidance path by equipped with automatic guidance devices such as electromagnetic or optical devices, and access vehicles on the flat ground. Multiple layers can be set, and the vehicles can be transported to the ground through auxiliary elevators. This kind of system is suitable for medium or large area, and the ground exit is limited. The parking volume of each system can be set on demand, AGV parking robot is not limited by the track, and the irregular underground space can also make the most of the limited space. The entrance and exit can also be arranged at any position within the specified range. Multiple AGVs can be equipped in a single system to improve the efficiency of vehicle storage and retrieval.
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